Recent Questions and Assignment Topics




The assessment will undergo five phases starting with the Measuring of hop count; this section will include the tracing of certain websites like, and many more with the help of using the traceroute command which will be implemented on the Linux terminal. As the command will allow hop count to reach the request to the destination. The second section will be used to set the parameters that will be used in tracing the website. These parameters include -n, w 1. Moving further to the next section, the measurement of delay and jitter will take place and various parameters like standard deviation, round trip time are taken from the ping activity. The next section will consist of bandwidth-delay product that will be measured with the help of iperf utility. The iperf utility will assist the user to calculate the bandwidth in kb/s along with the transfer rate in kb and the interval of the packet. Moving further to the last section that includes the submission of file in the ford of a word document.

Measuring the hop count

Command line parameters -n, w

Hop count for,,,,,,,,,

Hop Count versus Geographical Distance

After measuring the hop count, a graph will be plotted between the geographical distance and hop count for each website. Along with this, all the attributes like hop count, distance, location, address, minimum, average and mean deviation on a spreadsheet are plotted

Measuring Delay & Jitter

In the task, the average round trip time is considered as the delay whereas the mean standard deviation is selected as the jitter response.

Delay versus Geographical Distance

The delay with respect to geographical distance is shared in the below bar-graph where the delay is represented in milliseconds and the geographical distance covered is in kilometres.

Jitter versus Geographical Distance

The almost identical pattern of the graph is witnessed as we plot the jitter-distance where jitter is calculated in milliseconds with respect to the coverage in kilometres.  After that a comparison of the above graphs will take place.

Measuring the bandwidth-delay

After performing the iperf utility the bandwidth for all the above servers are calculated and in terms of evidence all the snapshots are provided in the appendix section. The bandwidth calculated from the public server is utilized along with the mean deviation value as delay from the ping utility in order to calculate the Bandwidth-Delay Product BDP.

Bandwidth versus Delay

The bandwidth in context with the delay witnessed in the servers which is analysed in terms of latency. And all the patterns will be compared.

Bandwidth-Delay Product versus Hop Count

Lastly the bandwidth-delay product graph is plotted in comparison with the hop count.

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